Physics: Modeling Nature

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Preface for Teachers

1. Student Audience and Preparedness

2. Our Emphasis on Mastery, Integration, and Kingdom

3. Recommendations for Teaching With This Text

4. Laboratory Work and Lab Reports

Preface for Students

1. Why Physics is Difficult

2. Strategies for Making Physics Manageable

3. Studying for Mastery

Chapter 1: Mathematical Tools

1.1 Science and Measurements

1.1.1 No Measurements, No Science

1.1.2 Matter, Volume, and Mass

1.1.3 The SI Unit System

1.1.4 MKS Units

1.2 Uncertainty in Measurements

1.2.1 Error and Uncertainty

1.2.2 Distinguishing Between Accuracy and Precision

1.2.3 Significant Digits

1.2.4 Random and Systematic Error

1.2.5 Standard Deviation

1.2.6 Calculating Percent Difference

1.3 Modeling Nature

1.3.1 Science as Mental Model Building

1.3.2 Truth and Facts

1.3.3 Facts, Theories, Hypotheses, and Experiments

1.4 Vector Methods

1.4.1 Scalars and Vectors

1.4.2 How to Learn Vector Addition

1.4.3 Vector Addition—The Graphical Method

1.4.4 Additional details About the Direction of a Vector

1.4.5 Vector Addition—the Trigonometric Method

1.4.6 Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar

1.4.7 Vector Multiplication

Connections in Physics: Vector Fields

Chapter 2: Uniform Motion

2.1 How Physics Is Organized

2.2 Rectilinear Motion

2.2.1 The Terminology of Motion

2.2.2 Coordinate Systems

2.2.3 Velocity and Acceleration

Connections to Calculus: Derivatives

2.2.4 The Equations of Kinematics

Connections in Physics: Correct Problem-Solving Method

Connections in Physics: Free Fall

2.2.5 Symmetry in Kinematics Problems

2.3 Projectile Motion

2.3.1 Modeling Assumptions

2.3.2 Vector Analysis and Calculation Method

Connections in Physics: Fictitious Forces

2.4 Relative Velocity

Chapter 3: Forces, Fields, and Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.1 Forces and Fields: The Big Picture

3.1.1 The Four Fundamental Interactions

3.1.2 Fields

3.2 Historical Views on Motion

3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.3.1 The Laws of Motion

Connections in Physics: The Laws of Motion

Connections in Physics: Motion at Relativistic Speeds

3.3.2 Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals

3.3.2 Mass and Weight

3.3.3 General Principles for Modeling Complex Systems

3.3.4 Free Body Diagrams and Force Components

3.4 Friction

3.4.1 The Source of Friction

3.4.2 Modeling Friction

3.4.3 Solving Dynamics Problems Involving Friction

Connections to Calculus: The Second Law and Impulse

Chapter 4: Static Equilibrium and Torque

4.1 Static Equilibrium

4.1.1 Static Equilibrium

4.1.2 Tow Conditions for Static Equilibrium

4.2 Modeling Torque

4.2.1 Torque as a Vector Quantity

4.2.2 Visualizing and Calculating Torque

4.3 Modeling Static Equilibrium

4.3.1 Free Body Diagrams for Static Equilibrium

4.3.3 Solving Problems in Static Equilibrium

Chapter 5: Energy

5.1 Defining Energy

5.1.1 Energy, Matter, and the Beginning of the Universe

5.1.2 The Quantization of Energy

5.2 Forms of Energy

5.2.1 Units for Energy and Power

5.2.2 Forms of Energy

5.2.3 The Mechanical Equivalent of Heats

5.2.4 Energy Loss in Mechanical Systems

5.3 The Conservation of Mass-Energy

5.3.1 The Energy Fundamentals

5.3.2 The Law of Conservation of Energy

5.3.3 Conservative Fields

5.3.4 The Work-Energy Theorem

Connections to Calculus: Energy Rates of Change

5.3.5 Einstein and Mass-Energy Equivalence

Connections in Physics: The Photoelectric Effect

Chapter 6: Momentum

6.1 Momentum and Impulse

6.1.1 Momentum

6.1.2 Impulse and Newton’s Second Law

6.2 Conservation of Momentum

6.2.1 Conservation Laws in Physics

6.2.2 The Law of Conservation of Momentum and Newton’s Laws of Motion

6.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

6.3.1 Collisions and Energy Loss in Systems

6.3.2 Combining Momentum and Energy

Connections in Physics: Discovery of the Neutron

Connections in Physics: Compton Scattering

Chapter 7: Rotating Systems

7.1 Angular Quantities

7.1.1 Radian Measure

7.1.2 Angular Displacement, Angular Velocity, and Angular Acceleration

7.1.3 Tangential Quantities

7.2 Torque and Angular Acceleration

7.2.1 Moment of Inertia

7.2.2 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation

7.3 Centripetal Force

7.3.1 Motion in a Circle

7.3.2 Calculations With Centripetal Force

Connections to Calculus: Moment of Inertia

7.4 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Connections in Physics: Henry Cavendish and G

Chapter 8: Energy and Momentum in Rotating Systems

8.1 Rotational Kinetic Energy

8.1.1 More Translational-Rotational Parallels

8.1.2 Rotational Kinetics Energy as an Energy Storage Medium

8.1.3 Conservation of energy with Rotating Systems

8.2 Combining Rotational and Translational Kinetic Energy

8.3 Angular Momentum

Connections in Physics: Quantization of Angular Momentum

Connections in Physics: Precession

Chapter 9: Pressure and Buoyancy

9.1 Pressure

9.1.1 Pressure as Force Applied to an Area

9.1.2 Pressure In a Fluid Medium

9.1.3 Air Pressure

9.1.4 Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure

9.1.5 Pascal’s Law

9.1.6 Bernoulli’s Principle

9.2 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

9.2.1 Buoyancy

9.2.2 Archimedes’ Principle

9.2.3 Flotation

Chapter 10: Gases, Kinetic Theory, and Heat

10.1 Moles and Molar Masses

10.1.1 Moles and the Avogadro Constant

10.1.2 Molar Mass

10.1.3 Gram Masses of Atoms and Molecules

10.2 The Gas Laws

10.2.1 Boyle’s Law

10.2.2 Charles’ Law

10.2.3 Avogadro’s Law

10.2.4 The Ideal Gas Law

10.3 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

10.3.1 Velocity Distribution of Gases

Connections in Physics: Fundamental Constants in Nature

10.3.2 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

10.3.3 Temperature and Molecular Energy

10.4 Thermal Properties of Matter

10.4.1 States of Matter

10.4.2 Heat Transfer

10.4.3 Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams

10.4.4 Thermal Properties of Matter

110.4.5 Calorimetry

10.4.6 Evaporation

10.4.7 Vapor Pressure

Chapter 11: Thermodynamics

11.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

11.1.1 The Ideal Gas Systems Model

11.1.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics

11.1.3 State Variables and Thermodynamic States

11.1.4 Work and Thermodynamic States

Connections to Calculus: Work as Area Under the PV Curve

11.2 Thermodynamic Processes

11.2.1 Thermodynamic Processes

11.2.2 Qualitative First Law Applications

11.3 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

11.3.1 Disorder and Directionality

11.3.2 Microstates, Entropy, and Reversibility

11.3.3 Heat Engines and Maximum Theoretical Efficiency

11.3.4 Refrigeration

Chapter 12: Simple Harmonic Motion, Waves, and Sound

12.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

12.1.1 Modeling Oscillation

12.1.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

Connections to Calculus: Simple Harmonic Motion

12.1.3 Energy In Simple Harmonic Motion

12.1.4 The Simple Pendulum and the Small-Angle Approximation

12.2 Wave Modeling and Interactions

12.2.1 Modeling Waves

12.2.2 Reflection, Refraction, and Dispersion

12.2.3 Standing Waves and Resonance

12.2.4 Diffraction and Interference

12.3 Sound

12.3.1 Sound Intensity and the Inverse Square Law

12.3.3 Frequency Response

12.3.4 The Doppler Effect

12.3.5 The Speed of Sound

Chapter 13: Electrostatics and Electric Circuits

13.1 Charge and Static Electricity

13.1.1 Charge

13.1.2 Static Electricity

13.2 Conservation of Charge and Coulomb’s Law

13.2.1 Conservation of Charge

Connections in Physics: Feynman Diagrams

13.2.2 Coulomb’s Law

13.3 Electric Fields and Charge Symmetries

13.3.1 Spherical Field Symmetry

13.3.2 Cylindrical Field Symmetry

13.3.3 Planar Field Symmetry

13.4 Energy in Electric Fields

13.4.1 Work, Potential, and Voltage

Connections to Calculus: Absolute Potential

13.4.2 Potential and Equipotentials

13.4.3 Capacitors

13.4.4 Energy Storage in Capacitors

13.5 DC Circuits

13.5.1 Electric Circuits

13.5.2 Resistance in Conductors

13.5.3 Resistor Combinations and Equivalent Resistance

13.5.4 Kirchhoff’s Analysis

13.5.6 DC Circuit Analysis

Chapter 14: Electrostatics and Electric Circuits

14.1 Forces Caused by Magnetic Fields

14.1.1 Field and Flux

14.1.2 Magnetic Forces on Wires and Ampere’s Law

Connections to Calculus: Magnetic Flux and the B-Field

14.1.3 Forces on Moving Charges

Connections in Physics: Bubble Chambers

14.1.4 Torque on a Current Loop and the DC Motor

14.2 Faraday’s Law, Generators, and Transformers/p>

14.2.1 Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction

14.2.2 Generators

Connections to Calculus: Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction

14.2.3 Transformers

14.3 Inductance and Time-Varying Circuits

14.3.1 Inductance

14.3.2 Steady-State AC Circuits

14.3.3 RC Circuits

14.3.4 RL Circuits

14.3.5 RLC Circuits

14.4 Lenz’s Law

14.4.1 Lenz’s Law

14.4.2 Back-EMF

Chapter 15: Geometric Optics: A Brief Introduction

15.1 Ray Optics

15.1.1 Light As Rays

15.1.2 Human Image Perception

15.1.3 Flat Mirrors and Ray Diagrams

15.1.3 Real and Virtual Images

15.2 Optics and Curves Mirrors

15.2.1 Concave and Convex Optics

15.2.2 Approximations in Geometric Optics

15.2.3 Spherical Mirrors

15.2.4 The Mirror Equation

15.3 Lenses

15.3.1 Light Through a Lens

15.3.2 Single-Lens Applications

15.3.3 The Lens Equation

15.3.4 Multiple-Lens Systems

Connections in Physics: Rainbows

15.3.5 Imaging with the Eye

Chapter 16: Nuclear Physics: A Brief Introduction

16.1 Nuclides and Isotopes

16.1.1 Isotopes

16.1.2 Atomic Mass Unit

16.1.3 Nuclear Size and Density

16.1.4 Binding Energy and Mass Defect

16.1.5 Nuclear Equations

16.2 Radioactivity

16.2.1 Nuclear Stability

16.2.2 Nuclear Decay and Decay Series

16.2.3 Nuclear Half-life

16.2.4 Radiometric Dating

16.3 Fission and Fusion Reactions

16.3.1 Nuclear Fission

Connections in Physics: The Beginning of Nuclear Power

16.3.2 Nuclear Fusion


Answers to Selected Exercises

Appendix A: Reference Data

Appendix B: Unit Conversions Tutorial

B.1 Basic Principles of Unit Conversion Factors

B.2 Tips for Converting Units of Measure

B.3 Converting Temperature Units

References and Citations

Image Credits