Introductory Physics, 2nd Edition

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Preface for Teachers

1. A Different Textbook Philosophy

Mastery, Integration, and Kingdom Perspective



Kingdom Perspective

2. Teaching with this text

Skills and Prerequisites

Optional Chapter Content

Assignments, Homework, and the Weekly Workload

Experiments and Experimental Error

3. Companion Resources

Teaching Science so that Students Learn Science

Experiments Resources

Teacher Resource CD

The Student Lab Report Handbook

Solutions Manual

4. Revisions to the Second Edition

Preface for Students

Chapter 1: The Nature of Scientific Knowledge

1.1 Modeling Knowledge

1.1.1 Kinds of Knowledge

1.1.2 What is Truth and How Do We Know It?

1.1.3 Propositions and Truth Claims

1.1.4 Truth and Scientific Claims

1.1.5 Truth vs. Facts

1.2 The Cycle of Scientific Enterprise

1.2.1 Science

1.2.2 Theories

1.2.3 Hypotheses

1.2.4 Experiments

1.2.5 Analysis

1.2.6 Review

1.3 The Scientific Method

1.3.1 Conducting Reliable Experiments

1.3.1 Experimental Variables

Do You Know… What are double-blind experiments?

1.3.3 Experimental Controls

Chapter 1 Exercises

Do You Know… How did Sir Humphry Davy become a hero?

Chapter 2: Motion

2.1 Computations in Physics

2.1.1 The Mertic System

2.1.2 MKS Units

2.1.3 Converting Units of Measure

Do You Know… How is the kilogram defined?

2.1.4 Accuracy and Precision

2.1.6 Significant Digits

2.1.7 Scientific Notation

2.1.8 Problem Solving Methods

2.2 Motion

2.2.1 Velocity

Universal Problem Solving Method

2.2.2 Acceleration

2.3 Planetary Motion and the Copernican Revolution

2.3.1 Science History and the Cycle of Scientific Enterprise

2.3.2 Aristotle

2.3.3 Ptolemy

2.3.4 The Ptolemaic Model

2.3.5 The Ancient Understanding of the Heavens

2.3.6 The Ptolemaic Model and Theology

2.3.7 Copernicus and Tycho

2.3.8 Kepler and the Laws of Planetary Motion

2.3.9 Galileo

2.3.10 Newton, Einstein, and Gravitational Theory

Do You Know… Who built the first monster telescope?

Chapter 2 Exercises


Chapter 3: Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.1 Matter, Inertia, Mass and Force

3.2 Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.2.1 The Three Laws of Motion

3.2.2 Actions and Reactions

3.2.3 Showing Units of Measure in Computations

3.2.4 Weight

3.2.5 Applying Newton’s Laws of Motion

Thinking About Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.2.6 How a Rocket Works

Do You Know… Does gravity cause elliptical orbits?

Chapter 3 Exercises

Do You Know… Where is Isaac Newton’s tomb?


Chapter 4: Energy

4.1 What is Energy?

4.1.1 Defining Energy

4.1.2 The Law of Conservation of Energy

4.1.3 Mass-Energy Equivalence

4.2 Energy Transformations

4.2.1 Forms of Energy

4.2.2 Energy Transfer

4.2.3 The “Energy Trail”

Do You Know… What is dark energy?

4.2.4 The effect of Friction on a Mechanical System

4.2.5 Energy “Losses” and Equivalency

4.3 Calculations With Energy

4.3.1 Gravitational Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy

4.3.2 Work

Do You Know… What is alpha radiation?

4.3.3 Applying Conservation of Energy

4.3.4 Conversation of Energy Problems

4.3.5 Energy in the Pendulum

Do You Know… Why are there pendulums in clocks?


Chapter 5: Momentum

5.1 Defining Momentum

5.2 Conservation of Momentum

5.2.1 The Law of Conservation of Momentum

5.2.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

5.2.3 Problem Solving Assumptions

5.2.4 The Directionality of Momentum

5.2.5 Solving Problems with Conservation of Momentum

5.3 Momentum and Newton’s Laws of Motion

Do You Know… What is angular momentum?

Chapter 5 Exercises

Do You Know… What is a hydraulic jump?


Chapter 6: Atoms, Matter and Substances

6.1 Atoms and Molecules

6.2 The History of Atomic Models

6.2.1 Ancient Greece

6.2.2 John Dalton’s Atomic Model

6.2.3 New Discoveries

6.2.4 The Bohr and Quantum Models of the Atom

6.3 Volume and Density

6.3.1 Calculations with Volume

6.3.2 Density

6.4 Types of Substances

6.4.1 Major Types of Substances

6.4.2 elements

6.4.3 Compounds

Do You Know… What structures can carbon atoms make?

6.4.4 Heterogeneous Mixtures

6.4.5 Homogeneous Mixtures

6.5 Phases and Phase Changes

6.5.1 Phases of Matter

Do You Know… Why are crystals so fascinating?

6.5.2 Evaporation

Do You Know… What is a triple point?

Do You Know… Why causes the crystal structure of ice?

6.5.3 Sublimation

Chapter 6 Exercises


Chapter 7: Heat and Temperature

7.1 Measuring Temperature

7.1.1 Temperature Scales

7.1.2 Temperature Unit Conversions

7.2 Heat and Heat Transfer

7.2.1 How Atoms Possess Energy

7.2.3 Absolute Zero

7.2.4 Thermal Equilibrium

Do You Know… How fast are air molecules moving?

7.3 Heat Transfer Processes

7.3.1 Conduction

7.3.2 Convection

7.3.3 Radiation

7.4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

7.5 Thermal Properties of Substances

7.5.1 Specific Heart Capacity

7.5.2 Thermal Conductivity

7.5.3 Heat Capacity vs. Thermal Conductivity

Chapter 7 Exercises

Do You Know… What is the temperature in outer space?


Chapter 8: Pressure and Buoyancy

8.1 Pressure Under Liquids and Solids

8.2 Air Pressure and Barometers

8.2.1 Air Pressure

8.2.2 Barometers

8.2.3 Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure

8.3 Archimedes’ Principle of Buoyancy

8.4 Flotation

Do You Know… What was Archimedes’ “eureka” discovery?

Chapter 8 Exercises


Chapter 9: Waves, Sound, and Light

9.1 Modeling Waves

9.1.1 Describing Waves

9.1.2 Categorizing Waves

9.1.3 Modeling Waves Mathematically

9.2 Wave Interaction

9.2.1 Reflection

9.2.2 Refraction

9.2.3 Diffraction

9.2.4 Resonance

9.2.5 Interference

9.3 Sound Waves

9.3.1 Pressure Variations in Air

9.3.2 Frequencies of Sound Waves

9.3.3 Loudness of Sound

9.3.4 Connections Between Scientific and Musical Terms

9.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Light

Do You Know… What causes sonic booms?

Chapter 9 Exercises


Chapter 10: Introduction to Electricity

10.1The Amazing History of Electricity

10.1.1 Greeks to Gilbert

10.1.2 18th Century Discoveries

Intriguing Similarities between Gravity and Electricity

10.1.3 19th Century Breakthroughs

10.2 Charge and Static Electricity

10.2.1 Electric Charge

Do You Know… Who make the first color photograph?

10.2.2 How Static Electricity Forms

Do You Know… Why are Plasmas Conductive?

10.3 Electric Current

13.3.1 Flowing Charge

10.3.2 Why Electricity Flows So Easily in Metals

Chapter 10 Exercises

Do You Know… Whose pictures did Einstein have on his walls?


Chapter 11: DC Circuits

11.1 Understanding Currents

11.1.1 Electric Current

11.1.2 The Water Analogy

11.2 DC Circuit Basics

11.2.1 AC and DC Circuits

11.2.2 DC Circuits and Schematic Diagrams

11.2.3 Two Secrets

11.2.4 Electrical Variables and Units

11.2.5 Ohm’s Law

11.2.6 What Exactly Are Resistors and Why Do We Have Them?

11.2.7 Through? Across? In?

11.2.8 Voltages Are Relative

11.2.9 Power in Electrical Circuits

11.2.10 Tips on Using Metric Prefixes in Circuit Problems

11.3 Multi-Resistor DC Circuits

11.3.1 Two-Resistor Networks

11.3.2 Equivalent Resistance

11.3.3 Significant Digits in Circuit Calcculations

11.3.4 Larger Resistor Networks

11.3.5 Kirchoff’s Laws

11.3.6 Putting it All Together to Solve DC Circuits

Do You Know… Was there really a War of Currents?

Chapter 11 Exercises

Do You Know… What is an uninterruptible power supply?


Chapter 12: Fields and Magnetism

12.1 Three Types of Fields

12.2 Laws of Magnetism

12.2.1 Ampere’s Law

12.2.2 Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction

12.2.3 The Right-Hand Rule

12.3 Magnetic Devices

12.3.1 Solenoids

12.3.2 Motors and Generators

12.3.3 Transformers

Do You Know… Where were the first transformers made?

Chapter 12 Exercises

Do You Know… What is Nikola Tesla’s claim to fame?


Chapter 13: Geometric Optics

13.1 Ray Optics

13.1.1 Light as Rays

13.1.2 Human Image Perception

13.1.3 Flat Mirrors and Ray Diagrams

13.1.4 Real and Virtual Images

Optics and Curved Mirrors

13.2.1 Concave and Convex Optics

13.2.2 Approximations in Geometric Optics

13.2.3 Spherical Mirrors

13.2.4 The Mirror Equation

13.3 Lenses

13.3.1 Light Through a Lens

13.3.2 Single-Lens Applications

13.3.3 The Lens Equation

13.3.4 Multiple-Lens Systems

13.3.5 Imaging with the Eye

Do You Know… How are rainbows formed?

Chapter 13 Exercises



Appendix A: Reference Data

Appendix B: Chapter Equations and Objectives Lists

B.1 Chapter Equations

B.2 Chapter Objectives Lists

Appendix C: Laboratory Experiments

C.1 Important Notes

C.2 Lab Journals

C.3 Experiments

Experiment 1 The Pendulum Experiment

Experiment 2 The Soul of Motion Experiment

Experiment 3 The Hot Wheels Experiment

Experiment 4 Density

Experiment 5 DC Circuits

Appendix D: Scientists to Know About

Appendix E: Making Accurage Measurements

E.1 Parallax Error

E.2 Measurements with a Meter Stick or rule

E.3 Liquid Measurements

E.4 measurements with a Triple-Beam Balance

E.5 Measurements with an Analog Thermometer

Appendix F: References

Appendix G: Image Credits