Accelerated Studies in Physics and Chemistry (ASPC), 2e

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Preface for Teachers

Preface for Students

A Solid Study Strategy

 

Chapter 1 The Nature of Scientific Knowledge

1.1 Modeling Knowledge

1.1.1 Kinds of Knowledge

1.1.2 What is Truth and How Do We Know It?

1.1.3 Propositions and Truth Claims

1.1.4 Truth and Scientific Claims

1.1.5 Truth vs. Facts

Do you know … Dark matter

1.1.6 Relating Scientific Knowledge and Truth

1.2 The Cycle of Scientific Enterprise

1.2.1 Science

1.2.2 Theories

1.2.3 Hypotheses

1.2.4 Experiments

1.2.5 Analysis

1.2.6 Review

1.3 The Scientific Model

1.3.1 Conducting Reliable Experiments

1.3.2 Experimental Variables

1.3.3 Experimental Controls

Do you know … Double-blind experiments

Chapter 1 Exercises

Do you know … Hero Sir Humphry Davy

 

Chapter 2: Motion

2.1 Computations in Physics

2.1.1 The Metric System

2.1.2 MKS Units

Do you know … Defining base units

2.1.3 Dimensional Analysis

2.1.4 Accuracy and Precision

2.1.5 Significant Digits

2.1.6 Scientific Notation

2.1.7 Problem Solving Methods

2.2 Motion

2.2.1 Velocity

Universal Problem Solving Method

2.2.2 Acceleration

2.2.3 Graphical Analysis of Motion

2.3 Planetary Motion and the Copernican Revolution

2.3.1 Science History and the Science of Motion

2.3.2 Aristotle

2.3.3 Ptolemy

2.3.4 The Ptolemaic Model

2.3.5 The Ancient Understanding of the Heavens

2.3.6 The Ptolemaic Model and Theology

2.3.7 Copernicus and Tycho

2.3.8 Kepler and the Laws of Planetary Motion

2.3.9 Galileo

Do you know … The first monster telescope

2.3.10 Newton, Einstein, and Gravitational Theory

Chapter 2 Exercises

 

Chapter 3 Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.1 Matter, Inertia, and Mass

3.2 Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.2.1 The Three Laws of Motion

3.2.2 Actions and Reactions

3.2.3 Showing Units of Measure in Computations

3.2.4 Weight

3.2.5 Applying Newton’s Laws of Motion

Thinking About Newton’s Laws of Motion

3.2.6 How a Rocket Works

3.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion and Momentum

Do you know … Gravity and elliptical orbits

Chapter 3 Exercises

Do you know … Isaac Newton’s tomb

 

Chapter 4 Variation and Proportion

4.1 The Language of Nature

4.2 The Mathematics of Variation

4.2.1 Independent and Dependent Variables

4.2.2 Common Types of Variation

4.2.3 Normalizing Equations

Chapter 4 Exercises

 

Chapter 5: Energy

5.1 What is Energy?

5.1.1 Defining Energy

5.1.2 The Law of Conservation of Energy

5.1.3 Mass-Energy Equivalence

5.2 Energy Transformations

5.2.1 Forms of Energy

5.2.2 Energy Transfer

5.2.3 The “Energy Trail”

Do you know … Caloric theory

5.2.4 The Effect of Friction on a Mechanical System

5.2.5 Energy “Losses” and Efficiency

5.3 Calculations With Energy

5.3.1 Gravitational Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy

5.3.2 Work

Do you know … Nuclear energy calculations (just for fun!)

5.3.3 Applying Conservation of Energy

5.3.4 Conservation of Energy Problems

Do you know … The expanding universe and dark energy

5.3.5 Energy in the Pendulum

Chapter 5 Exercises

 

Chapter 6: Heat and Temperature

6.1 Measuring Temperature

6.1.1 Temperature Scales

6.1.2 Temperature Unit Conversions

6.2 Energy In Substances

6.2.1 How Atoms Possess Energy

Do you know … The velocity of molecules

6.2.2 Internal Energy, Thermal Energy, and Temperature

6.2.3 Absolute Zero

6.2.4 Thermal Equilibrium

6.3 Heat Transfer Processes

6.3.1 Heat Conduction in Nonmetal Solids

6.3.2 Heat Conduction in Metals

6.3.3 Convection

6.3.4 Radiation

6.4 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

6.5 Thermal Properties of Substances

6.5.1 Specific Heat Capacity

6.5.2 Thermal Conductivity

6.5.3 Heat Capacity vs. Thermal Conductivity

Chapter 6 Exercises

Do you know … The temperature in outer space

 

Chapter 7 Waves, Sound, and Light

7.1 Modeling Waves

7.1.1 Describing Waves

7.1.2 Categorizing Waves

7.1.3 Modeling Waves Mathematically

7.2 Wave Interactions

7.2.1 Reflection

7.2.2 Refraction

7.2.3 Dispersion

7.2.4 Diffraction

7.2.5 Resonance

7.2.6 Interferance

Do you know … Resonant frequencies in skyscrapers

7.3 Sound Waves

7.3.1 Pressure Variations in Air

7.3.2 Frequencies of Sound Waves

7.3.3 Loudness of Sound

7.3.1 Connections Between Scientific and Musical Terms

Do you know … Sonic booms

7.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Light

Chapter 7 Exercises

 

Chapter 8 Electricity and DC Circuits

8.1 The Amazing History of Electricty

8.1.1 Greeks to Gilbert

8.1.2 18th-Century Discoveries

Intriguing Similarities between Gravity and Electricity

8.1.3 19th-Century Breakthroughs

8.2 Charge and Static Electricity

8.2.1 Electric Charge

8.2.2 How Static Electricity Forms

Do you know … Plasmas

Do you know … The first color photograph

8.3 Electric Current

8.3.1 Flowing Charge

8.3.2 Why Electricity Flows So Easily in Metals

8.3.3 The Water Analogy

8.4 DC Circuit Basics

8.4.1 AC and DC Currents

8.4.2 DC Circuits and Schematic Diagrams

8.4.3 Two Secrets

8.4.4 Electrical Variables and Units

8.4.5 Ohm’s Law

8.4.6 What Exactly Are Resistors and Why Do We Have Them?

8.4.7 Through? Across? In?

8.4.8 Voltages are Relative

8.4.9 Power in Electrical Circuits

8.4.10 Tips on Using Metric Prefixes in Circuit Problems

8.5 Charge and Static Electricity

8.5.1 Electric Charge

8.5.2 How Static Electricity Forms

8.6 Solving DC Circuits

8.6.1 Kirchoff’s Laws

Do you know … Rectifiers and inverters

8.6.2 Putting it All Together to Solve DC Circuits

Do you know … The war of currents

Chapter 8 Exercises

 

Chapter 9 Fields and Magnetism

9.1 Three Types of Fields

9.2 Laws of Magnetism

9.2.1 Ampere’s Law

9.2.2 Faraday’s Law of Magnetic Induction

9.2.3 The Right-Hand Rule

9.3 Magnetic Devices

9.3.1 Solenoids

9.3.2 Motors and Generators

9.3.2 Transformers

Do you know … The first transformers

Chapter 9 Exercises

 

Chapter 10: Substances

10.1 Review of Some Basics

10.2 Types of Substances

10.2.1 Major Types of Substances

10.2.2 Elements

10.2.3 Compounds

10.2.4 Heterogeneous Mixtures

10.2.5 Homogeneous Mixtures

10.3 Solubility

Do you know … Carbon structures

10.4 Phases and Phase Transitions

10.4.1 The Phases of Matter

10.4.2 Evaporation

Do you know … The triple point

10.5 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Do you know … Crystalline beauty

10.5.1 Physical Properties

10.5.2 Chemical Properties

Do you know … The structure of ice

10.5.3 Physical and Chemical Changes

Chapter 10 Exercises

 

Chapter 11 Historical Atomic Models and Density

11.1 The History of Atomic Models

11.1.1 Ancient Greece

11.1.2 The Scientific Revolution

11.1.3 Dalton’s Model

11.1.4 New Discoveries

11.2 Density

11.2.1 Volume

11.2.2 Density Calculations

Chapter 11 Exercises

 

Chapter 12 The Bohr and Quantum Atomic Models

12.1 The Bohr Model

12.1.1 Bohr’s Planetary Model

12.1.2 Atomic Spectra

12.2 The Quantum Model

12.2.1 Quantum Numbers and Orbitals

Do you know … Energy transitions in the hydrogen atom

12.2.2 Electron Configurations

12.3 Atomic Masses and Isotopes

12.3.1 Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, and Mass Number

12.3.2 Isotopes

Chapter 12 Exercises

 

Chapter 13 Atomic Bonding

13.1 Bonds and Valence Electrons

13.1.1 The Science of Atoms

13.1.2 The Three Types of Atomic Bonds

13.1.3 Valence Electrons and Atomic Shells

13.1.4 Goals Atoms Seek to Fulfill

13.1.5 Why Some Elements Are More Reactive than Others

13.2 Metallic Bonds

13.3 Ionic Bonds

13.3.1 Bonding by Electron Transfer

12.3.2 Valence Numbers and Ionic Compound Binary Formulas

13.4 Covalent Bonds

13.4.1 Bonding by Electron Sharing

13.4.2 Electron Dot Diagrams and Octets

13.4.3 Diatomic Gases

13.5 Hydrogen

13.6 Polyatomic Ions

Do you know … Energy transitions in the hydrogen atom

Chapter 13 Exercises

 

Chapter 14 Chemical Reactions

14.1 Chemical Equations

14.2 Four Types of Chemical Reactions

14.2.1 Synthesis Reactions

14.2.2 Decomposition Reactions

14.2.3 Single Replacement Reactions

14.2.4 Double Replacement Reactions

14.3 Other Reactions

14.3.1 Salts

14.3.2 Combustion Reactions

14.3.3 Oxidation Reactions

14.3.4 Redox Reactions

14.3.5 Precipitation Reactions

14.3.6 Acid-Base Reactions

14.4 Balancing Chemical Equations

14.4.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass

14.4.2 Balancing Chemical Equations

Do you know … Metal pickling

14.5 Energy in Chemical Reactions

14.5.1 Activation Energy

14.5.2 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

14.6 Reaction Rates and Collision Theory

Chapter 14 Exercises

 

Glossary

Appendix A Reference Data

Appendix B Chapter Equations and Objectives Lists

Appendix C Laboratory Experiments

C.1 Important Notes

C.2 Lab Journals

C.3 Experiments

Experiment 1 The Pendulum Experiment

Experiment 2 The Soul of Motion Experiment

Experiment 3 The Hot Wheels Experiment

Experiment 4 DC Circuits

Experiment 5 Solubility

Experiment 6 Density

Appendix D Scientists to Know About

Appendix E Unit Conversions Tutorial

Appendix F Making Accurate Measurements

F.1 Parallax Error

F.2 Measurements with a Meter Stick or Rule

F.3 Liquid Measurements

F.4 Measurements with a Triple-Beam Balance

Measurements with an Analog Thermometer

Appendix G References

Image Credits

Index

 

Accelerated Studies in Physics and Chemistry (ASPC), 2e

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