Earth Science: God's World Our Home

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Preface for Teachers

Mastery, Integration, and Kingdom Perspective

Our Position on Controversial Topics

Considerations for Science Programming

Lab Journals and Lab Reports

Conducting Experiments

Companion Book and Resource CD

Notes on Using this Text

Preface for Students

Stewarding God’s Gifts

Mastery

Lab Journals

Chapter 1: Earth in Space

1.1 An Introduction to Earth Science

1.1.1 Earth Systems

1.1.2 Subdivisions of Earth Science

1.1.3 Further Specializations

1.2 Earth in the Solar System, Galaxy, and Universe

1.2.1 Earth in the Solar System

1.2.2 Earth—A “Just Right” Planet

1.2.3 Earth in the Galaxy and Universe

1.3 Earth’s Orbit and the Seasons

1.3.1 Earth’s Orbit

1.3.2 Solstices and Equinoxes

1.3.3 The Tropics and Polar Regions

1.4 Phases of the Moon

1.5 Eclipses

1.5.1 Solar Eclipses

1.5.2 Lunar Eclipses

1.6 Calendars

1.6.1 The Hebrew Calendar

1.6.2 The Islamic Calendar

1.6.3 Western Calendars

Chapter 2: Visualizing Earth

2.1 Locations on Earth

2.1.1 Latitude and Longitude

2.1.2 Satellite Navigation Systems

2.2 Map Projections and the Shape of Earth

2.2.1 Map Projections

2.2.2 The Shape of the Earth

2.3 Remote Sensing

2.4 Mapping Earth

2.4.1 Geographic Information Systems

2.4.2 Topographic Maps

2.4.3 Map Margin Information

2.4.3 Gradient and Percept Slope

Experimental Investigation 1: Interpreting Topograhic Maps

Chapter 3: Thinking About Earth

3.1 The Cycle of Scientific Enterprise in Earth Sciences

3.1.1 Scientific Facts

3.1.2 Scientific Theories

3.1.3 Hypotheses and Scientific Research (Experiments)

3.1.4 Analysis

3.2 Experimental Science and Historical Science

3.3 Challenges in Studying Earth

3.4 Christianity and the Earth Sciences

3.4.1 Doing Science is a Way to Love God and Love People

3.4.2 Science and Truth

3.4.3 Do Christianity and Science Conflict?

3.5 Stewardship of Earth

3.5.1 Earth Stewardship in the Bible

3.5.2 Earth Resources

3.5.3 Sustainability

3.5.4 The Degradation of Creation

Chapter 4: Matter and Minerals

4.1 Atoms Elements, and Crystals

4.1.1 Atomic Structure

4.1.2 The Periodic Table of the Elements

4.1.3 Compounds and Crystals

4.1.4 Chemical Bonds

4.2 Minerals

4.2.1 Definition of Mineral

4.2.2 Formation of Minerals

4.2.3 Mineral Groups

4.2.4 Gems

4.3 Mineral Properties and Identification

4.3.1 Luster, Color, and Streak

4.3.2 Crystal Form, Hardness, Cleavage, and Density

4.3.3 Other Mineral Properties

4.4 Mineral Resources

4.4.1 Ores

4.4.2 Mines

4.4.3 Minerals as Nonrenewable Resources

Experimental Investigation 2: Identifying Minerals

Chapter 5: Rocks and the Rock Cycle

5.1 The Rock Cycle

5.2 Igneous Rocks

5.2.1 Magma and Lava

5.2.2 Types of Magma and Lava

5.2.3 Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous Rocks

5.2.4 Identifying Igneous Rocks

5.3 Sedimentary Rocks

5.3.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks

5.3.2 Organic and Chemical Sedimentary Rocks

5.3.3 Identifying Sedimentary Rocks

5.4 Metamorphic Rocks

5.4.1 Contact Metamorphism and Regional Metamorphism

5.4.2 Identifying Metamorphic Rocks

5.5 Energy Resources

5.5.1 Coal

5.5.2 Petroleum and Natural Gas

5.5.3 Environmental Concerns with Fossil Fuels

5.5.4 Alternative Energy Resources

Experimental Investigation 3: Identifying Rocks

Chapter 6: Plate Techtonics and Mountain Building

6.1 Continental Drift

6.2 The Ocean Floor

6.2.1 Centental Margins

6.2.2 Mid-Ocean Ridges

6.2.3 Seamounts and Marine Sediments

6.3 Seafloor Spreading

6.4 Plate Techtonics

6.4.1 Plate Boundaries

6.4.2 Tectonic Plate Movements in the Past

6.5 Mountain Building

6.5.1 Folding

6.5.2 Faulting

6.5.3 Mountain Formation

Chapter 7: Volcanoes and Earthquakes

7.1 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics

7.1.1 Volcanism at Divergent Plate Boundaries

7.1.2 Volcanism at Cnvergent Plate Boundaries

7.1.3 Volcanism Within Techtonic Plates

7.2 Volcanoes

7.2.1 Volcanic Materials

7.2.2 Types of Volcanoes

7.2.3 Caldera Eruptions

7.2.4 Fissure Eruptions

7.3 igneous Intrustions

7.4 Earthquakes

7.4.1 Elastic Deformation

7.4.2 Faults

7.4.3 Seismic Waves

7.4.4 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes

7.5 Earthquake Damage

7.5.1 Earthquake Intensity

7.5.2 Tsunamis

7.6 The Interior of the Earth

7.6.1 Crust

7.6.2 Mantle

7.6.3 Core

Experimental Invetigation 4: Studying Volcanoes and Topo Maps

Chapter 8: Weathering, Erosion, and Soils

8.1 Mechanical and Chemical Weathering

8.1.1 Mechanical Weathering

8.1.2 Chemical Weathering/p>

8.1.3 Rates of Weathering

8.2 Erosion

8.2.1 Agents of Erosion

8.2.2 Transportation and Deposition

8.2.3 Differential Weathering and Erosion

8.3 Soils

8.3.1 Soil Composition

8.3.2 Soil Horizons and Profiles

8.3.3 Formation of Soils

8.3.4 Soil Types

8.3.5 Soil Conservation

Experimental Investigation 5: Modeling Weathering

Chapter 9: Surface Water and Groundwater

9.1 The Hydrologic Cycle

9.2 Streams

9.2.1 Drainage Networks

9.2.2 Streamflow in Channels

9.2.3 Stream Profiles and Base Level

9.2.4 Erosion and Transport of Sediments by Streams

9.2.5 Stream Deposition

9.3 Stream Landforms

9.3.1 Stream Valleys

9.3.2 Floods and Floodplains

9.4 Groundwater

9.4.1 Porosity and Permeability

9.4.2 Aquifers

9.4.3 Springs and Wells

9.4.4 Groundwater as a Resource

9.5 Caverns and Groundwater Landforms

Experimental Investigation 6: The Stream Table

Chapter 10: Landforms

10.1 Landforms Caused by Mass Movement

10.1.1 Variables That Influence Mass Movement

10.1.2 Types of Mass Movement

10.2 Desert Landforms

10.2.1 Streams in the Desert

10.2.2 Wind Erosion and Transport

10.2.3 Wind Deposits

10.3 Glaciers

10.3.1 Glacial Ice

10.3.2 Alpine Glaciers

10.3.3 Ice Sheets

10.4 Glaciation in Earth’s Past

10.4.1 Evidence for an Ice Age

10.4.2 Net The Timing and Worldwide Effects of Glaciation

Experimental Investigation 7: Studying Glaciers with Topo Maps

Chapter 11: Unraveling Earth History

11.1 Geologic Time

11.1.1 The Development of the Concept of Geologic Time

11.1.2 Hutton and Lyell

11.2 Relative Age

11.2.1 Rock Layers

11.2.2 Principles of Relative-Age Dating

11.2.3 Unconformities

11.2.4 Putting it All Together

11.3 Fossils

11.3.1 Types of Preservation

11.3.2 Trace Fossils

11.3.3 Uses of Fossils

11.4 Abolute Dating

11.4.1 Isotopes and Radioactivity

11.4.2 Radiometric Dating

11.4.3 Types of Radiometric Dating

11.5 Sedimentary Envinonrments

11.6 An Overview of Earth History

11.6.1 Divisions of Earth History

11.6.2 The Precambrian

11.6.3 The Paleozoic Era

11.6.3 The Mesozoic Era

11.6.3 The Cenozoic Era

Chapter 12: Oceanography

12.1 The Oceans

12.1.1 History of Ocean Exploration

12.1.2 Oceans and Seas

12.2 Seawater

12.2.1 Salinity

12.2.2 Physical Properties of Seawater

12.3 Currents and Waves

12.3.1 Ocean Surface Currents

12.3.2 Waves

12.4 Tides

12.5 Marine Life

12.5.1 Types of Marine Organismsd

12.5.2 Basic Requirements for Ocean Life

12.5.3 Ocean Environments

12.5.4 Ocean Food Resources

12.6 Shorelines

12.6.1 Erosional Landforms along Coastlines

12.6.2 Depositional Landforms along Coastlines

12.6.3 Humans and Coastlines

Chapter 13: The Atmosphere

13.1 The Composition and Structure of Earth’s Atmosphere

13.1.1 Compositin of the Atmosphere

13.1.2 Layers in the Atmosphere

13.2 Properties of the Atmophsere

13.2.1 Temperature

13.2.2 Atmospheric Pressure

13.2.3 Wind

13.2.4 Humidity

13.2.5 Precipitation

13.3 Energy and Water in the Atmosphere

13.3.1 Solar Radiation and transfers of Energy

13.3.2 Evaporation, Condensation, and Energy

13.4 Circulation of the Atmosphere

13.4.1 Global Wind Systems

13.4.2 Jet Streams

Chapter 14: Weather

14.1 Clouds and Precipitation

14.1.1 Formation of Clouds

14.1.2 Types of Clouds

14.1.3 Precipitation

14.2 Air Masses and Fronts

14.2.1 Air Masses

14.2.2 Fronts

14.2.3 Weather Maps

14.3 Weather Forecasts

14.3.1 Making a Basic Weather Forecast

14.3.2 Analog Weather Forecasting

14.3.3 Numerical Weather Forecasting

14.4 Severe Weather

14.4.1 Thunderstorms, Severe Weather, and Tornadoes

14.4.2 Tornadoes

14.4.3 Hurricanes

Experimental Investigation 8: Weather Maps

Chapter 15: Climate and Air Pollution

15.1 Climate

15.1.1 Climate Charts

15.1.2 Factors that Determine Climate

15.2 Classification of Climates

15.2.1 The Køppen Climate-Classification System

15.2.2 A Closer Look at the Climate Groups

15.2.3 Weather Extremes

15.3 Climate Change

15.3.1 Natural Climate Changes

15.3.2 Human-Caused Climate Change

15.4 Air Pollution

15.4.1 Air Pollutants

15.4.2 Factors that Affec Air Pollution

15.4.3 Indoor Air Pollution

Afterword

Glossary

Appendix

Minerals

Biblical Citations

References

Image Credits

Index

Kevin Nelstead

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