Chemistry for Accelerated Students, 1st edition

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Preface for Teachers

1. Student Audience and Preparedness

2. Our Emphasis on Mastery, Integration, and Kingdom

3. Recommendations for Teaching With This Text

4. Laboratory Work and Lab Reports

Preface for Students

Introduction: What is Chemistry All About?

I.1 A Few Major Themes

I.1.1 Chemistry Is All About Electrons

I.1.2 Chemistry Is All About Electrical Forces

Hmm… Interesting. Why water forms beads

I.1.3 Chemistry Is All About Minimizing Energy

I.1.4 Chemistry Is All About Whole Number Ratios of Atoms

I.1.5 Chemistry Is All About Modeling

I.2 Conclusion

Chapter 1: Atomic Structure

1.1 Atomic Spectra

1.1.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.1.2 The Energy in Atoms

Hmm… Interesting. Neon Signs and Photons

1.1.3 The Hydrogen Atom

1.2 The Bohr Model of the Atom

1.3 The Quantum Model of the Atom

1.3.1 Schrödinger and Pauli

1.3.2 Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals

1.3.3 The Aufbau Priciple, the Madelung Rule, and Hund’s Rule

1.4 Electron Configurations

1.4.1 Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams

1.4.2 Condensed Electron Configurations

1.4.3 Anomalous Electron Configurations

1.5 Isotopes and Atomic Masses

1.5.1 Isotopes

1.5.2 The Unified Atomic Mass Unit

1.5.3 Atomic Masses

1.5.4 The Mole and the Avogadro Constant

1.5.5 Molar Mass and Formula Mass

1.5.6 Gram Masses of Atoms and Molecules

1.5.7 Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas

1.5.8 Determining a Molecular Formula from an Empirical Formula

1.5.9 Significant Digit Rules for Addition

Chapter 2: The Periodic Law

2.1 The Periodic Table of The Elements

2.2 Periodic Table Nomenclature

2.3 Periodic Physical Properties

2.3.1 Atomic Radius and Bonding Atomic Radius

2.3.2 Ionic Radius

2.4 Periodic Chemical properties

2.4.1 Core and Valence Electrons

2.4.2 Effective Nuclear Charge

2.4.3 Ionization Energy

2.4.4 Electron Affinity

2.4.5 Electronegativity

Hmm… Interesting. Hydrogen in space

2.5 A Few Notes About Hydrogen

Chapter 3: Chemical Bonding

3.1 Preliminaries

3.1.1 Types of Substances

3.1.2 Chemical Possibilities

3.1.3 The Octet Rule

3.2 Ionic Bonding

3.2.1 Ionic Bonds and Crystals

3.2.2 Naming Ionic Compounds

3.2.3 Energy in Ionic Bonds

3.2.4 Hydrates

3.2.5 Intensive and Extensive Properties

3.2.6 Physical Properties of Ionically Bonded Substances

3.3 Covalent Bonding

3.3.1 Covalent Bonds and Molecules

3.3.2 Polyatomic Ions

3.3.3 Ionic Compounds With Polyatomic Ions

3.3.4 Polyatomic Ion Names

3.3.5 Naming Acids

3.3.6 Lewis Structures

3.3.7 Exceptions to The Octet Rule

3.3.8 Resonance Structures

3.3.9 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds

3.3.10 Energy in Covalent Bonds

3.3.11 Bond Number

3.3.12 Physical Properties of Covalently Bonded Substances

3.4 Electronegativity, Polarity, and Bond Character

3.4.1 Polarity and Dipoles

3.4.2 The Nature of The Bond

Hmm… Interesting. The molecular structure of glass and quartz

Chapter 4: Molecular Theory and Metallic Bonding

4.1 Molecular Structure

4.1.1 Covalent Bond Theory

4.1.2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

4.1.3 The Effect of Nonbonding Domains on Bond Angle

4.1.4 Orbital Hybridization Theory

4.1.5 Valence-Bond Theory

4.2 Metallic Bonding

4.2.1 Metallic Lattices

Hmm… Interesting. Tin pest

4.2.2 Physical Properties of Metals

4.3 Intermolecular Forces

4.3.1 Bonding Forces

4.3.2 Intermolecular Forces

4.3.3 Hydrogen Bonding

4.3.4 Van Der Waals Forces

Chapter 5: Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry

5.1 Introduction to Chemical Equations

5.1.1 Fascinating Chemistry

5.1.2 The Law of Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions

5.1.3 Reaction Notation

5.1.4 Balancing Chemical Equations

5.1.5 Oxidation States

Hmm… Interesting. Why nitrates and nitros blow up

5.2 General Types of Chemical Reactions

5.2.1 Synthesis Reactions

5.2.2 Decomposition Reactions

5.2.3 The Activity Series of Metals

5.2.4 Single Replacement Reactions

5.2.5 Double Replacement Reactions

Hmm… Interesting. A story about aqua regia

5.2.6 Combustion Reactions

5.2.7 Acid-Base Reactions

5.2.8 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

5.3 Stoichiometry

5.3.1 Stoichiometric Calculations

5.3.2 Limiting Reactant

5.3.3 Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield

Chapter 6: Kinetic Theory and States of Matter

6.1 Temperature, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and Pressure

6.1.1 Temperature and Molecular Energy

6.1.2 Velocity Distribution of Gases

6.1.3 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

6.1.4 Gas Pressure

6.2 States of Matter

6.2.1 The Four Basic States of Matter

Hmm… Interesting. How barometers work

6.2.2 Solids

6.2.3 Liquids

6.2.4 Gases

Hmm… Interesting. Gas diffusion

6.2.5 Plasmas

6.2.6 Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams

6.2.7 Heat Capacity, Heat of Fusion, and Heat of Vaporization

6.2.8 Evaporation

6.2.9 Vapor Pressure

Chapter 7: The Gas Laws

7.1 Early Formulations of The Gas Laws

7.1.1 Boyle’s Law

7.1.2 Charles Law

7.1.3 Avogadro’s Law

7.2 The Ideal Gas Law

7.2.1 Standard Temperature and Pressure

7.2.2 The Ideal Gas Law

Hmm… Interesting. The gas laws as models

7.2.3 Using The Ideal Gas Law to Find Molar Mass and Density

7.3 The Law of Partial Pressures

7.3.1 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

7.3.2 Collecting A Gas Over Water

7.4 Stoichiometry of Gases and Effusion

7.4.1 Stoichiometry of Gases

7.4.2 Gas Diffusion and Effusion

Hmm… Interesting. Uranium enrichment

Chapter 8: Solution Chemistry

8.1 What Is and Is Not A Solution

8.1.1 Suspensions

8.1.2 Colloidal Dispersions

Hmm… Interesting. Brownian motion

8.2 Dissolution

8.2.1 The Process of Dissolving

8.2.2 Enthalpy of Solution

8.2.3 Entropy and Free Energy

8.2.4 Electrolytes

8.3 Solubility

8.3.1 Ionic Solids in Water

8.3.2 Ionic Solids in Nonpolar Solvents

8.3.3 Polar Liquids

8.3.4 Nonpolar Liquids

8.3.5 Solutions of Solids

Hmm… Interesting. How soap works

8.3.6 Gases in Liquid Solutions: Le Châtelier’s Principle and Henry’s Law

8.3.6 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility

8.4 Quantifying Solution Concentration

8.4.1 Molarity

8.4.2 Molality

8.5 Compounds in Aqueous Solution

8.5.1 Ionic Equations and Precipitates

8.5.2 Net Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions

8.6 Colligative Properties of Solutions

8.6.1 Vapor Pressure Lowering

8.6.2 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation

8.6.3 Osmotic Pressure

Chapter 9: Acids and Bases

9.1 Properties and Nomenclature of Acids and Bases

9.1.1 Introduction

9.1.2 Properties of Acids and Bases

9.1.3 Acid Names and Formulas

9.2 Acid-Base Theories

9.2.1 Arrhenius Acids and Bases

9.2.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Hmm… Interesting. What is an alkali?

9.2.3 Lewis Acids and Bases

9.2.4 Strength of Acids and Bases

9.3 Aqueous Solutions and pH

9.3.1 The Self-ionization of Water

9.3.2 Calculating [H3O+] and [OH]

9.3.3 pH as a Measure of Ion Concentration and Acidity

9.3.4 pH Measurement, pH Indicators, and Titration

9.3.5 Titration Procedure

9.3.6 Determining [H3O+] or [OH] from Titration Data

Chapter 10: Thermochemistry and Kinetics

10.1 Energy in Chemical Reactions

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 Enthalpy

10.1.3 Understanding Enthalpy and Energy

10.1.4 Enthalpy of Combustion

10.1.5 Enthalpy of Formation

10.2 Calculating Enthalpy of Reaction and Enthalpy of Formation

10.2.1 Hess’s Law

10.2.2 Hess’s Law and The General Enthalpy Change Equation

10.3 Free Energy

10.3.1 Brief Review of Enthalpy and Entropy

10.3.2 More on Entropy

10.3.3 Gibbs Free Energy

10.4 Reaction Kinetics

10.4.1 Collision Theory

10.4.2 Factors Influencing Reaction Rate

10.4.3 Reaction Mechanisms

10.4.4 Activation Energy and The Activated Complex

10.4.5 Reaction Rate Laws

10.4.6 Rate Laws and Reaction Mechanisms

Chapter 11: Chemical Equilibrium

11.1 Physical and Chemical Equilibrium

11.1.1 Equilibria We Have Seen So Far

Hmm… Interesting. Is dissolution a chemical change?

11.1.2 Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium

11.1.3 The Law of Chemical Equilibrium and the Equilibrium Constant

11.1.4 Le Châtelier’s Principle and Equilibrium Shifts

11.1.5 Reaction That Go To Completion

11.1.6 The Common-Ion Effect

11.2 Acid-Base Equilibrium

11.2.1 The Acid Dissociation Constant

11.2.2 The Base Dissociation Constant

11.2.3 Buffered Solutions

11.2.4 Hydrolysis of Salts

Hmm… Interesting. Buffering in blood

11.3 Solubility Equilibria

11.3.1 The Solubility Product

11.3.2 Calculating Ksp From Concentration Or Solubility Data

11.3.3 Calculating Solubility From Ksp

11.3.4 Using Ksp to Predict Precipitation

Chapter 12: Redox Chemistry

12.1 Oxidation and Reduction

12.1.1 Introduction to Redox Reactions

12.1.2 Oxidation States

12.1.3 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

12.2 Redox Reaction Equations

12.2.1 Redox Half-Reactions

12.2.2 Balancing Redox Equations

12.3 Electrochemistry

12.3.1 Copper and Zinc Redox

12.3.2 Electricity Instead of Heat

12.3.3 Electrochemical Cells

Hmm… Interesting. How are salt bridges made?

12.3.4 Electrode Potentials

12.3.5 Electrochemical Applications

Chapter 13: Organic Chemistry: An Introduction

13.1 The Chemistry of Carbon

13.1.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Carbon Molecular Geometry

13.1.3 Carbon Allotropes

13.2 Hydrocarbons

13.2.1 Alkanes

Hmm… Interesting. The end of CFCs (almost)

13.2.2 Alkyl Groups

13.2.3 IUPAC Naming Standards

13.2.4 Functional Groups

13.2.5 Alkenes and Alkynes

Hmm… Interesting. Fractional distillation

13.2.6 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

13.2.7 Aromatic Compounds

13.3 Compounds Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen

13.3.1 Alcohols and Ethers

13.3.2 Aldehydes and Keytones

13.3.3 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

13.3.4 Nitrogen Compounds: Amines and Amides

Hmm… Interesting. Trans fats

13.4 Polymers

13.4.1 Types of Polymers

13.4.2 Polymerization

13.4.3 A Short Polymer Showcase

13.5 A Wee Bit of Biochemistry

Hmm… Interesting. Recycling numbers

Glossary

Answers to Selected Exercises

Appendix A: Units, Unit Conversions, Significant Digits, and Scientific Notation

A.1 The SI Unit System

A.2 Metric Prefixes

A.3 Converting Units of Measure

A.4 Converting Temperature Units

A.5 Accuracy and Precision

A.6 Significant Digits

A.7 Scientific Notation

Appendix B: Reference Data

Appendix C: Scientists to Know About

References and Citations

Image Credits

Index

 

 

Cover image

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